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LED Processes
LED processes can be divided into upstream epitaxy production, mid-stream die production, downstream packaging and testing, as well as system assembly. In the end, various types of end-products are produced. The various stages of LED production as well as the relevant processes are described below:

Using single-chip materials composed of III-V compounds such as arsenic (As), gallium (Ga), or phosphorus (P) as substrates for crystal growth, we can use epitaxial methods to produce epitaxial chips. Epitaxy can be roughly divided into liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), vapor phase epitaxy (VPE), and metal organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Epitaxial LED wafers electrodes are produced according to the requirements of different LED components through diffusion, metal film deposition, etching, as well as heat treatment processes. Then, the epitaxial substrates are ground thin, polished, cut, and split into single dies.

The die are attached to a wire rack and are packaged into various types of LED components (such as: Lamps, SMDs, Displays, etc.) through die bonding, solidification, wiring, resin sealing, baking, cutting, testing, and packaging processes.
LEDDriving Power Supply
Electronic Ballast – core components of the LED power supply include the switching controller, inductor, switching component (MOSfet), feedback resistor, input filter components, and output filter components, etc. Some situations also require input over-voltage protection circuits, input under-voltage protection circuits, LED open-circuit protection, and over-current protection circuits.

IC LED Design Architecture – this design implements a type of linear series LED driver light source module.

This design does not require the use of transformers, magnetic inductive components, or electrolytic capacitors, which are hazardous to the environment. This invention is a revolutionary and innovative new technology that contributes significantly to eliminating global environmental pollution.